Are you looking to form a professional limited liability company (PLLC) in Kentucky, but you’re not sure how the formation process works? There are several important steps when it comes to creating a Kentucky PLLC that is compliant and able to do business in the state.
What is a Kentucky Professional LLC?
The professional limited liability company (PLLC) is a specialized type of LLC that is intended for licensed professionals to offer their unique services. The professions that require a PLLC instead of a normal LLC are described by the state of Kentucky as “services rendered by physicians, osteopaths, optometrists, podiatrists, chiropractors, dentists, nurses, pharmacists, psychologists, occupational therapists, veterinarians, engineers, architects, landscape architects, certified public accountants, public accountants, physical therapists, and attorneys.”
The Kentucky PLLC is typically more popular than a professional corporation (PC) because it’s a more flexible business type, but it still includes the personal asset protection and professional qualifications that make the PSC valuable.
PLLCs in Kentucky have relatively simple formation and maintenance requirements, several options for how they want to be taxed, and flexible management. From one-person businesses to multi-member PLLCs with several owners, the PLLC is a popular choice for a reason.
An important detail of the PLLC that differs from a traditional LLC is that liability protection is not shared across all members of the company. For example, if you operate a PLLC for physicians, your business structure does not shield each individual member from malpractice suits. Instead, each member is liable for their own malpractice insurance, and no member is liable for another member’s malpractice.
Forming a PLLC in Kentucky (in 6 Steps)
Step One) Choose a PLLC Name
Your PLLC’s name is often the first impression you get to make on potential customers, and therefore it goes without saying that this is an important step. There are a few different aspects to take into consideration when selecting a name for your business:
In the state of Kentucky, every professional limited liability company is required to have either the initials “PLLC” or “PLC,” or the phrases “professional limited liability company” or “professional limited company” in their name. In addition, you cannot include any words that refer to other business types (like “corporation” or “incorporated”), and you also can’t use words that are typically used to refer to specific kinds of professions (like “law office”) unless you’re operating that business type.
Another aspect to consider is including language that explains what your business does. For example, if you’re a doctor, put the word “physician” or the initials “MD” in your PLLC name. Additionally, if your business has strong values like being environmentally friendly, you can indicate that by including the word “green.”
Do You Like It?
At the end of the day, this is your business, and you should choose a name that makes you proud. You should also make sure your PLLC name both sounds good when spoken out loud, and looks good when written down.
The most important consideration for naming a PLLC is to not get too attached to any one business name until you know that it is available for use. Kentucky makes this process rather easy, as you can search their entire state business database at this link, and if you’re not yet ready to form your PLLC, you can reserve your desired name with the Application for a Reservation or Renewal of Reserved Name form.
Step Two) Designate a Registered Agent
Every PLLC in Kentucky is required to designate a registered agent, which is the individual or business entity that receives government correspondence on behalf of your business, then forwards those documents to you.
According to the Kentucky Secretary of State,
Each entity must designate a registered agent and registered office in Kentucky upon whom process (such as summons and subpoenas) may be served. Service on the registered agent is deemed to be service on the entity, regardless whether the registered agent actually forwards the notice to the entity.
Without a registered agent, you could lose your good standing with the state of Kentucky, and the state also has the right to dissolve your PLLC if they decide to. In a worst-case scenario, the state could fail to alert you regarding a lawsuit against your company, which could even lead to a judgment against your business because you didn’t defend yourself.
At the end of the day, we recommend hiring a dedicated registered agent service to handle these requirements. Doing so will help eliminate junk mail and more importantly, keep your personal and/or business address off public record.
Step Three) File Formation Documents with the State
Once you are ready to form your Kentucky professional limited liability company, you will fill out the Articles of Organization for a Professional Limited Liability Company (Form PLC).
This is THE document that will register your PLLC with the state. You’ll want to ensure all of the following information is correct on the form:
- Your chosen business name
- Name and address of your Kentucky registered agent
- Management style (member-managed or manager-managed)
- Profession practiced through your PLLC
- Name and address of the PLLC’s organizer
- Signature of organizer and registered agent
- Effective date
Cost to Form a PLLC
The state of Kentucky charges a $40 fee to form a PLLC.
It takes 3-4 business days for the state to process your Kentucky PLLC formation paperwork and get your finalized documents in the mail to you. However, most filings that are completed online are finalized within one business day. Please note that the estimate of business days begins once ALL required paperwork is in order and filed correctly.
Step Four) Create an Operating Agreement
After you register a PLLC in Kentucky, create a detailed outline that explains how you will run and manage your new business. Even though it doesn’t need to be filed with the state, put one together and keep it for your records.
When you open a bank account, you may be asked for a copy of this document. You’ll also want to keep in mind that any future business partners or managing members may also be interested in seeing your operating agreement before joining your company. After all, this document essentially serves as your overall plan for success.
An attorney can help you outline your operating agreement, or you can create one from a free template online. You can read more about operating agreements here, but some of the basic information you’ll want to have includes:
- Individual members' ownership percentages
- Rights and responsibilities
- Voting powers and meeting guidelines
- Allocation of profits and losses
- Management rules for the PLLC
- Provisions for buying a member owner out, or transferring their shares in the case of illness or death
Step Five) Handle Taxation Requirements
The vast majority of PLLCs require a federal tax ID number, or EIN. An EIN is basically the business version of a social security number, and it’s used for a variety of important PLLC functions.
For instance, you’ll need an EIN if you want to hire any employees, and many banks require them to open business bank accounts as well. You’ll also need one for tax purposes, hence the name federal tax ID number. Get an EIN for your LLC for free through the IRS.
When it comes to state-level PLLC taxes, Kentucky levies these taxes based on the nature of your business.
One that every PLLC needs is the limited liability tax. In addition, most PLLCs will need to register for sales and use tax, and if you have employees you’ll need employer’s withholding tax as well. Beyond that, there are many industry-specific taxes like the telecommunications tax, transient room tax, motor vehicle tire tax, etc.
While determining which ones you need and then registering for them may sound like a headache, Kentucky makes the entire process very easy. All you need to do is fill out an online form on their “One Stop Registration” page, and they’ll automatically enroll you for the taxes that apply to your business.
Depending on where in Kentucky your business is located, you may also need to pay some local taxes. The largest cities in Kentucky all have their own online business resources ― including Louisville, Lexington, Bowling Green, and Paducah ― so don’t overlook this potentially crucial step.
Step Six) Obtain Business Licenses and Permits
The state of Kentucky does not have a general business license that each PLLC needs to acquire in order to do business.
However, much like the state has industry-specific tax requirements, it also has licenses and permits that are required for businesses in certain industries. Kentucky has hundreds of these licenses, and due to the professional nature of the PLLC, you will definitely need to acquire at least one license to be able to operate in compliant fashion.
We recommend that every PLLC owner search through the state database of occupational permits and licenses, and don’t forget that your local government may require licenses or permits as well. You can get more information on county-level licenses at this link.
Would You Prefer a Professional Form Your PLLC?
If you would prefer to have a professional handle the paperwork for you, consider hiring an online business formation service.
Because of the often-complex nature of professional limited liability companies, some of our favorite service providers don’t offer PLLC formations, but there are still plenty of quality companies that do provide this service. A couple of our favorites for PLLC formation are LegalZoom and MyCorporation.
Another option would be to hire a business attorney to handle your PLLC formation. While this is certainly a more expensive route than using an online formation service, a lawyer’s expertise could come in handy when you’re forming a specialized business structure like this.
Next Steps: What to Do After Creating a PLLC in Kentucky
Open a business bank account
We highly recommend that you establish a separate business banking account so that your business and personal finances are maintained completely separate. This is important because it helps protect your personal assets and also makes filing taxes much easier. Once you receive your EIN from the IRS, you’ll be able to use it to establish an account at the bank or credit union of your choice.
Every Kentucky business with employees is strictly required to acquire unemployment insurance and workers’ compensation insurance. For more information on either of these policies, check out the Division of Unemployment Insurance or the Department of Workers’ Claims, respectively. Though not required, it’s probably also a good idea to pursue general liability insurance, as well as some industry-specific policies pertaining to the profession practiced by your PLLC.
Understand income reporting
Income reporting is just what it sounds like – reporting the income you made from your business. It’s important to note that you must file this form whether you made or lost money over the course of the year.
The state of Kentucky has several forms based on how your business is set up that you can access here.
Understand annual reporting
Kentucky requires that all PLLCs file an annual report. You can file it online here. Your annual report will essentially serve to update the state on any pertinent information regarding your business that has changed over the course of the year.
Find an accountant
We don’t recommend that you attempt to manage your business finances without the help of a professional. There is too much room for error, and a professional can ultimately save you time and money by guiding you on how to best manage your business finances. At a minimum, enlist professional help to set you up with software and the steps for keeping up with your finances on a regular basis. Then, consult back with your accountant at least a couple of times per year – and especially at tax time – to ensure you’re keeping track of everything correctly.